Vitamin D is a fat-soluble vitamin prohormon, 2 main forms are vitamin D2 (or ergocalciferol) and vitamin D3 (or cholecalciferol), which generally have the ability to prevent or treat the disease rickets. Before the discovery of vitamin D, the percentage of urban children who live in areas of high temperature increases that are experiencing the disease rickets. Vitamin D also refers to the metabolite and another analogy from this substance. Vitamin D3 is produced in the skin that is exposed to sunlight, particularly ultraviolet radiation B. active Molecules of vitamin D, 1,25 (OH) D (2) (3) is the main character in metabolism absorption of calcium into bone, muscle function, as well as an immunomodulator influence on immune system against several diseases, including diabetes and cancer. The main source of vitamin D, which the skin is exposed to ultraviolet radiation.
As a budding inventor experts of vitamin D may be mentioned Mc Collum, Hesz, and Sherman, where in 1921 was experimenting feeding fish oil vitamin D then began to be known and distinguished from the vitamin A in cod liver oil, which was able to avoid the disease rickets and encourage growth, the effect of the latter is considered the influence of vitamin a. vitamin A is known that damaged by ultraviolet and shines by oxidation. It turns out that fish oil that has ultraviolet irradiated and oxidation by oxygen in the air, still capable of preventing or treating rachitis, but it does not show the effects of vitamin A.
Vitamin D prevent and cure diseases, i.e. riketsia where bones are not able to perform classification. Vitamin D the body can be formed with the help of sunlight. When the body gets enough sunlight vitamin D through food consumption is not needed. Because it can be a synthesis in the body, vitamin D can be said to be not a vitamin, but a prohormon. When the body is not getting enough sunlight, vitamin D needs to be met through food. At first thought there is only one chemical bond with vitamin D, but it later turns out then there is some organic ties with the activities of vitamin D.
Sources of vitamin D are generally found in the light of the Sun, fish liver oil, eggs, butter, oil, milk, cod, salmon, sardines, tuna, sweet potato, and vegetable oil. The amount required to consume vitamin D is 200 international laws unit (I.U.) from birth until the age of 50 years old every day. And increased to 400 I.U. at age 70, and 600 I.U. for age 71 years and older. But several groups of such figures is less adequate.Vitamin D can be toxic if taken or consumed in large doses or excessive.
Most of these vitamins can not be synthesized by the body. Some of them can still be shaped by the body, but the speed of its very small so the amount formed is not able to meet the needs of the body. Therefore, the body must obtain vitamins from food everyday. So the vitamin regulates metbolisme, change the karohidrat and fat into energy, and regulates the formation of bone and tissue. Vitamin D is fat soluble there are many in the flesh of fish, fish oil and eggs. Once absorbed in the body, vitamin D is stored in the liver or fat tissues. As with any fat requires vitamins, protein transporters to move it from one place to another. Lack or excess consumption of vitamin D is not good for the body.
THE CLASSIFICATION OF VITAMIN D
Some form of vitamin D :
1. Vitamin D1: compound of ergocalciferol with lumisterol.
2. Vitamin D2: ergocalciferol or calciferol (from ergosterol)
3. Vitamin D3: cholecalciferol (from 7-dehydrocholesterol).
4. Vitamin D4: 22-dihydroergocalciferol
5. Vitamin D5: sitocalciferol (from 7-dehydrositosterol)
THE FUNCTION OF VITAMIN D
Vitamin D is a known vitamins function as prohormon. Vitamin D experienced twice hydroksilasi for its activity as hormones. In order for vitamin D can carry out his duties, the necessary conditions for a healthy liver and kidneys. The function of vitamin D are :
1. To improve the absobsi Ca and Phosphat in the gut. For the absorption of Ca required an appropriate comparison with the availability of phosphate in it. A good ratio is around 1 : 1 p, Ca absorption of Ca will be interrupted when the comparison under 1 Ca Phosphat : 4.
2. Encourage the formation of salts of Ca in tissues that need it. Salt Ca required on some networks to strengthen the network of structures such as bones and teeth-geligi. Contained in the hard tissues of the carbonate salt and salt this phosphat, also of Calcium fluoride. Salt Ca on the network hardware is contained in a dynamic balance with body fluids, meaning conditions occur the same flux between a Ca that goes to the hard tissue out of the network.
3. Vitamin D also has increased resorption phosphat in renal tubuli, thereby increasing the concentration of Ca and conditions of phosphate in the network for the synthesis of salt Ca phosphat.
4. The function of vitamin D is the most destructive and murderous as all sorts of harmful bacteria or viruses the body. In addition, the function of vitamin D can also give strength to the body from the attack of the disease. Vitamin D is also very important to streamline the process of the growth of bones and teeth as well as guarding it from fragility.
A DISEASE CAUSED BY VITAMIN D
As a result of excess vitamin D
Disease the caused due to excess vitamin D is poisoning.
1. vitamin D Toxicity
Consuming vitamin D as much as 10 times the recommended dose for a few months can result in poisoning, namely high levels of calcium in the blood. The first symptoms of vitamin D toxicity are loss of appetite, nausea and vomiting, followed by an incredible thirst, increased urination, weakness, anxiety and high blood pressure.
Usually be done with regular blood tests. The cause is often seen on the history and activities of the last patient (eg, drinking large amounts of milk, taking antacid tablets containing calcium). To help determine the cause, conducted laboratory tests and x-rays.
a) treatment consists of stopping the use of supplemental vitamin D and follow a diet low in calcium to reduce the effects of high levels of calcium in the blood.
b) corticosteroids may be given to reduce the risk of tissue damage.
c) ammonium chloride was given to maintain the acidity of the urine, thus reducing the risk of calcium stone formation.
As a result of deficient in vitamin D
Diseases caused due to vitamin D deficiency is rickets/rakitis.
Rickets is a softening of bones in children due to deficiency or impaired metabolism of vitamin D, magnesium, phosphorus or calcium, potentially leading to fractures and deformity. The main cause is a vitamin D deficiency, but lack of adequate calcium diet can also lead to rickets. Although it can occur in adults, the majority of cases occur in children suffering from severe malnutrition, usually as a result of famine or starvation during the early stages of childhood.
Rickets/rakitis can be checked by :
a. blood Tests: Serum calcium may show low levels of calcium, serum phosphorus may be low, and serum alkaline phosphatase may be high.
b. arterial blood gases may reveal metabolic acidosis
c. x-rays of affected bones may show loss of calcium from bones or changes in the shape or structure of the bone.
d. bone biopsy is rarely performed but will confirm rickets/rakitis.
a. dietary and sunshine